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The R package redbookperu provides convenient access to the information contained in the Red Book of Endemic Plants of Peru. This book represents a comprehensive compilation of data on Peru’s endemic plant species, encompassing records of 5,507 distinct taxa. Although this document marked a milestone by consolidating an ambitious initiative focused on understanding the diversity of Peru’s endemic plant species at the time of its publication, it currently requires a review and update of the presented taxonomic information.

The process of accessing data from the original publication can pose challenges for researchers, particularly due to the large number of taxa presented within it. The redbookperu package has the primary objective of addressing these challenges by providing updated taxonomic information. Additionally, it introduces functions designed to enhance the accessibility and usefulness of the data presented in the Red Book of Endemic Plants of Peru.

The information included in the redbookperu package is built with the support of the Taxonomic Name Resolution Service TNRS, in collaboration with the World Checklist of Vascular Plants WCVP database. These resources are utilized to ensure the validity and standardization of the taxonomic information that we provide.


You can install the redbookperu package from CRAN using:


# or


You can install the development version of redbookperu from GitHub:


Getting Started

After installing the redbookperu package, you can load it into your R session using:

#> This is redbookperu 0.0.2

To determine if a species of interest is listed in the Red Book of Endemic Plants of Peru, we provide the check_redbook() function. This function verifies whether the species of interest is included in the book’s species list. The function comes in two variations:

  • check_redbook(splist, tax_status == TRUE): The resulting information is structured as follows: “species name” - “taxonomic status” - “validation information”.
    • Species Name: Provides the currently accepted name for the species.
    • Taxonomic Status: Includes the following categories: “Accepted name” when the species name recorded remains valid currently, “Updated name” for species whose scientific name recorded at the time of publication is now considered synonymous, “No opinion” for species whose name presents difficulties in determining their current taxonomic status, and “Non info. available” for species for which updated information hasn’t been found in the WCVP database. When the species of interest doesn’t match the species list, the response is “Not endemic”.

splist <- c("Aphelandra cuscoenses", "Sanchezia capitata",
            "Sanchezia ovata", "Piper stevensi",
            "Verbesina andinaa", "Verbesina andina", "Weinmania nubigena")

redbookperu::check_redbook(splist, tax_status = TRUE)
#> [1] "Aphelandra cuscoensis - Accepted name - Fuzzy match"
#> [2] "Sanchezia ovata - Updated name"                     
#> [3] "Sanchezia ovata - Not endemic"                      
#> [4] "Piper stevensii - No opinion - Fuzzy match"         
#> [5] "Verbesina andina - No info. available - Fuzzy match"
#> [6] "Verbesina andina - No info. available"              
#> [7] "Weinmania nubigena - Not endemic"
  • check_redbook(splist, tax_status == FALSE): The result indicates whether the species is endemic or not, based on its match with the species present in the database.
redbookperu::check_redbook(splist, tax_status = FALSE)
#> [1] "Endemic - fuzzy match" "Endemic"               "Not endemic"          
#> [4] "Endemic - fuzzy match" "Endemic - fuzzy match" "Endemic"              
#> [7] "Not endemic"

Both functions indicate the presence of partial matches (fuzzy match) when the name of the species of interest varies compared to the information present in the database.

check_redbook() function is designed to work seamlessly with tibbles, allowing users to easily analyze species data within a tabular format.

tibble::tibble(splist = splist) |> 
  dplyr::mutate(endemic_tax_status = redbookperu::check_redbook(splist, tax_status = FALSE),
                endemic = redbookperu::check_redbook(splist, tax_status = TRUE))
#> # A tibble: 7 × 3
#>   splist                endemic_tax_status    endemic                           
#>   <chr>                 <chr>                 <chr>                             
#> 1 Aphelandra cuscoenses Endemic - fuzzy match Aphelandra cuscoensis - Accepted …
#> 2 Sanchezia capitata    Endemic               Sanchezia ovata - Updated name    
#> 3 Sanchezia ovata       Not endemic           Sanchezia ovata - Not endemic     
#> 4 Piper stevensi        Endemic - fuzzy match Piper stevensii - No opinion - Fu…
#> 5 Verbesina andinaa     Endemic - fuzzy match Verbesina andina - No info. avail…
#> 6 Verbesina andina      Endemic               Verbesina andina - No info. avail…
#> 7 Weinmania nubigena    Not endemic           Weinmania nubigena - Not endemic

If you intend to access the information provided for each of the species listed in the Red Book of Endemic Plants of Peru, you have the option to use the get_redbook_data() function. This function facilitates the association of updated taxonomic information with the details concerning conservation status, distribution, and descriptions presented in the original publication.

redbookperu::get_redbook_data(c("Sanchecia capitata",
                   "Weinmania nubigena",
                   "Macroclinium christensonii",
                   "Weberbauera violacea"))
#>                name_subitted              accepted_name accepted_family
#> 1         Sanchecia capitata            Sanchezia ovata     Acanthaceae
#> 2         Weinmania nubigena                       nill            nill
#> 3 Macroclinium christensonii Macroclinium christensonii     Orchidaceae
#> 4       Weberbauera violacea       Weberbauera violacea    Brassicaceae
#>   accepted_name_author               redbook_name        iucn
#> 1          Ruiz & Pav.         Sanchezia capitata          DD
#> 2                 nill                       nill        nill
#> 3            D.E.Benn. Macroclinium christensonii CR, B1abiii
#> 4           Al-Shehbaz       Weberbauera violacea          DD
#>                                   publication
#> 1 Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 4: 315. 1904.
#> 2                                        nill
#> 3    Brittonia 46(3): 249 - 251, f. 13. 1994.
#> 4         Novon 14(3): 266 - 268, f. 3. 2004.
#>                              collector herbariums  common_name dep_registry
#> 1                  A. Mathews 1230 (K)       <NA> Desconocido.      JU - PA
#> 2                                 nill       nill         nill         nill
#> 3 O. del Castillo ex D.E. Bennett 5160        NY. Desconocido.           JU
#> 4        A. Sagástegui A. et al. 11175  MO; HUT!. Desconocido.           CA
#>                ecological_regions      sinampe peruvian_herbariums
#> 1 BMHP, BHA; altitud desconocida. Sin registro            Ninguno.
#> 2                            nill         nill                nill
#> 3                   BMHM; 1800 m. Sin registro            Ninguno.
#> 4                    PAR; 3800 m. Sin registro      HUT (isotipo).
#>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             remarks
#> 1               Esta especie arbustiva es conocida de dos localidades. La colección tipo fue recolectada en la cuenca del Pangoa en el siglo XVIII. Probablemente la expansión urbana y las actividades agrícolas sean problemas para esta especie.
#> 2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nill
#> 3 Esta hierba epífita es conocida sólo de la colección tipo, proveniente del valle de Chanchamayo, en una subcuenca del Perené. Esta región ha sufrido continuas reducciones de sus áreas naturales debido a la ampliación de la frontera agrícola.
#> 4                                                            Esta hierba paramuna es conocida de la localidad tipo, en la cuenca del Crisnejas, un tributario del Marañón. El ejemplar tipo fue recolectado en 1983, de una jalca poco herborizada.